Review| Volume 33, ISSUE 4, P105-110, April 2023

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Caesarean section: techniques and complications

Published:February 19, 2023DOI:


      Caesarean sections are being increasingly performed in the UK, now around one in four deliveries, and are the most frequent procedures performed by obstetric and gynaecology trainees. There are variations in technique between surgeons but there is overall guidance outlined by National Institute for Clinical Excellence. There are known complications of this procedure, as with any major surgery, which should be discussed with patients. Surgeons should be aware of these potential complications and how to approach them if they occur.


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      Further reading

        • Barr S.
        Caesarean section eLearning.
        Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, 2020 (
        Date accessed: January 6, 2023
        • Chu J.J.
        • Hinshaw K.
        • Paterson-Brown S.
        • et al.
        Perimortem caesarean section – why, when and how.
        Obstetr Gynaecol. 2018; 20: 151-158
        • Field A.
        • Haloob R.
        Complications of caesarean section.
        Obstetr Gynaecol. 2016; 18: 265-272
        • Jauniaux E.R.M.
        • Alfirevic Z.
        • Bhide A.G.
        • et al.
        • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
        Placenta praevia and placenta accreta: diagnosis and management. Green-top guideline no. 27a.
        BJOG. 2018;
        • Vousden N.
        • Cargill Z.
        • Briley A.
        • Tydeman G.
        • Shennan A.H.
        Caesarean section at full dilatation: incidence, impact and current management.
        Obstetr Gynaecol. 2014; 16: 199-205